The Earth’s Minerals

Bruce Museum's Permanent Science Galleries will be closing February 2, 2020, for a complete renovation and reinvention. 

Since the formation of Planet Earth some 4.5 billion years ago, the dynamic forces of temperature and pressure, along with the internal and external of water, gases, chemical and physical actions, have produced an ongoing record of geologic change. These changes have resulted in the creation of over 3,500 minerals, common and rare, which mankind has been increasingly depended upon over the past several thousand years. Today, our technologic society creates even greater demands upon these finite natural resources.